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从高考题看疑问词+ever的用法

发布时间:2012-12-11 14:00:17作者:汤旻佳点击数:1,835

从高考题看疑问词+ever的用法

       宁波外事学校  林追巧

先请看高考中关于“—ever”用法的几道单项选择题:

08浙江______wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way.

A. Anyone     B. The one     C. Whoever     D. Who

08辽宁______hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off this loaf of bread.

A. Whatever      B. Whenever    C. Wherever         D. However

08上海______well prepared you are, you still need a lot of luck in mountain climbing.

A. However       B. Whatever    C. No matter         D. Although

08宁夏The lawyer rarely wears anything other than jeans and a T-shirt ______ the season.

A. whatever        B. wherever            C. whenever         D. however

 (2007山东) Could I speak to _______ is in charge of International Sales, please?

      A. anyone      B. someone      C. whoever       D. no matter who

(2006 山东) ________ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.

      A. No matter what               B. No matter which

      C. Whatever                    D. Whichever

(2006江西) In peace, too, the Red Cross is expected to send help _____ there is human suffering.

      A. whoever     B. however       C. whatever         D. wherever

(2005浙江) The old man must be saved, _______ the cost.

      A. however    B. whatever       C. whichever         D. wherever

(2004重庆) You can eat food free in my restaurant ______ you like.

      A. whenever   B. wherever       C. whatever          D. however

(1999全国) We will have to finish the job, ___________ .

      A. long it takes however           B. it takes however long

      C. long however it takes           D. however long it takes

(1997全国) _______ , Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

      A. However late is he             B. However he is late

      C. However is he late             D. However late he is

(1995全国) If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, ______ great it is.

A. what        B. how           C. however          D. whatever

参考答案为CDAACDDBADDC。疑问词与ever组成的合成词的用法,是这几道高考题目的共同考点。这类词形似但用法各异,多数学生见到这类词就习惯性地将其译成"无论…",对其用法只知其一不知其二。鉴于此,笔者将这类词的主要用法试作以下归纳比较,并配以专练,希望能对广大考生决胜于高考助一臂之力

一.引导让步状语从句

所有疑问词(why除外)与ever组成的合成词,可引导让步状语从句, 相当

no matter 疑问词,意为无论…”。如:

Whatever you do, you must do it well. 无论我们做什么,我们都要把它做好。

Whatever difficulties we meet, we can work them out. 无论遇到什么困难,我们都能解决它们。

Wherever you go, whatever you do, I will be right here waiting for you.无论你走到哪里,无论你做什么,我都会在这儿等你。 

Be free to ask me whenever you have questions. 无论什么时候有问题,你都可以来问我。

He can go however he likes. 他爱怎么去就怎么去好了。

I’ll come however busy I am. 不论我有多忙,我都会来的。

注:当however表示 无论多么的时候,后面必须跟形容词或副词, 如上面的最后一个例句。

二.引导名词性从句

1.疑问代词+ ever引导名词性从句

疑问代词( what, who, whom, which )与ever组成的合成词,还可引导名

词性从句(主语从句或宾语从句),相当于any person/ anything that, 意为任何的人或事,具有双重语法功能,相当于定语从句中的先行词加关系词。如:

Do whatever ( anything that ) you like. 做你想做的任何事情。

I can do whatever work (any work that) I can find. 我可以做我能找到的任何工作。

Whoever (any person who) gets home first is to cook supper. 先到家的人做晚饭。

2.疑问代词+ever在名词性从句和状语从句中的用法比较

疑问代词+ever在名词性从句中,引导主语从句或宾语从句,因此它们在主

句中占据一定的成分(作主语或宾语)。并且这些词都相当于限制性定语从句中的先行词加关系词,所以句子中间不可能用逗号;而在状语从句中,这些词引导让步状语从句,相当于no matter + 疑问代词,在主句中不占据任何成分,主句是一个完整的句子,并且主从句之间要用逗号(有时省略,但完全可以加上)。试比较:

Whatever you do must be done well. (名词性从句)

Whatever you do, you must do it well. (让步状语从句)

Whoever breaks the law should be punished. (名词性从句)

Whoever breaks the law, he should be punished. (让步状语从句)

因此当这些词引导从句时,可以根据逗号的使用来判断它们引导名词性从句

还是让步状语从句。一个小小的逗号可谓举足轻重。

3whoever whomever的用法比较

whoever whomever都相当于any person who, 它们之间的区别如同who

whomwhoever引导主语从句,并在从句中作主语。whomever引导宾语从句,并在从句中作宾语。试比较:

Whoever comes will be welcome. whoever既作主句的主语又作从句的主语。

Ask whomever you like. whomever既作主句的宾语又作从句的宾语。

但如果是既作主句的宾语又作从句的主语,则要用whoever。如:

Free theater tickets will be sent to whoever phones us first.

Give the book to whoever likes it.

4whatever, who(m)ever whichever的用法比较

whateverwhichever都相当于anything that,它们之间的区别如同what

whichwhatever指没有限定范围的不论什么物,whichever指限定范围的不论哪一个物。试比较:

He may do whatever he likes.(要干什么就干什么,表示不限定的范围。)

All the magazines are here. You can borrow whichever you want. (指这里所有杂志中的随便哪一本,范围限定。)

同理,who(m)everwhichever的区别如同who(m)whichWho(m)ever指不限定范围中的不论什么人,whichever指限定范围中的不论哪一个人。试比较:

Women should enjoy complete freedom to marry whomever they might desire. ( 用于不限定的范围 )

Whichever of you comes in first in the hundred-meter dash will receive a prize. ( 指你们当中的不论谁,范围限定 )

在英语学习中,无论是阅读文章,还是做题都要看清语境,结合上下文来确定单词的含义。不能只记住这类单词"无论……"的意思并将其运用于各种场合。

巩固练习:

1. Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______shares her interests.

  A. anyone     B. whomever   C .whoever     D. no matter who

2. ---_____ can I do with such a situation?

  --- Take _______ measure you consider best.

A.    How; whichever           B. What; whatever 

C. How; whatever            D. What; whichever

3. ______ would like to devote his whole life to his country should go _____ there are all kinds of difficulties.

A. Who; somewhere           B. Whoever; where

C. Whatever; anywhere       D. Who; there

4.      ---- _______ helps others will be helped.

---- So, I’m thankful to and try to help ______ helps us.

A.    Whoever; whomever       B. Who; whomever 

C. Whoever; whoever         D. Who; whoever

5. We can give him ___________ help he wants.

A. which      B. every       C. whatever         D. that

6. __________ has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising.

A. Who       B. The one     C. Anyone           D. Whoever

7.___________ he does has nothing to do with me.
A. whatever    B. If           C. That             D. No matter what

8.___________ has passed the test will get a prize .
A. Whoever    B. No mater who  C. Whomever      D. Who

9.___________ David says sounds right to Helen. That's why she has made up her mind to leave with him___________ happens.
  A. Whatever; whatever              B. No matter what; whatever
  C. No matter what; No matter what   D. Whatever; however

10.___________ has a good education can apply for the job.
A. Who       B. Whoever        C. Anyone        D. Whomever

11. The manager has decided to put___________ he thinks is energetic, clever, and has good sense of duty in the position of the leadership of the company.
A. those who   B. anyone         C. whomever      D. whoever

12. _________ hard he tries, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

A. Wherever   B. Whatever       C. Whenever      D. However

13. A: Don’t you believe me?

B: _________ , I will believe ___________ you say.

A. No, whatever                  B. Yes, no matter what

C. No, no matter what             D. Yes, whatever

14. Air is all around us. _________ we are on the earth, we are surrounded by air. A. Wherever     B. Whatever     C. However        D. Whenever

15. Many plans have been suggested. _________ plan you adopt, you will encounter difficulties.

A. Wherever     B. Whichever    C. Whenever       D. Whoever

参考答案:1---5  C B B C C    6---10  D A A A B     11---15   D D D A B